writing about tech

Month: June 2014 (page 2 of 2)

My 10 Second Review of Star Citizen/Arena Commander

“Time to finally try Star Citizen!”

*updates all the graphics card drivers*
*downloads all the Windows Updates*
*downloads the 12 GB Arena Commander module*
*fires it up*

“Unsupported video card detected!”

*double checks system requirements*
*notices his (apparently ancient) graphics card is 100 MB short of the 1GB requirement*
*sighs, turns on his PS4, and flies around in an X-Wing and TARDIS for awhile*

Deprecated Post: 29 Days with Android

Deprecated posts are where I revisit popular posts I made on other sites.  Depending on the amount of time that’s passed, some of what is written may no longer be relevant, but I believe much of what is covered in these posts is still worthy of discussion.

On the eve of Google I/O 2014, I figured it’d be appropriate to share 29 Days with Android, my first serious attempt at writing a long-form article about technology.  In this particular case, I’d been an iPhone user until 2012, when I decided to make the move from an iPhone 4 to an HTC One X, and thought my experience was worth sharing.  I was quite shocked and humbled when The Verge actually featured it on their site.  

To this day, the One X is still my favorite piece of Android hardware, design-wise.  Its biggest flaw was the fact it only shipped with 1 gig of RAM, which doesn’t really cut it in an Android flagship anymore.

The following was originally posted on The Verge’s forums on June 13th, 2012.



After 4 years of owning an iPhone, I have reached the end of Day 29 of owning an Android phone – specifically, the HTC One X. Why is 29 days noteworthy? Because I have 30 days after buying a new phone to return it to AT&T if I am unhappy – so, if I’m going to go back to the iPhone, it would have to be tomorrow.

I’ll go ahead and spoil the ending for you: I’m keeping the HTC One X. If you’re curious as to why – read on! If you aren’t, well, I’m glad I didn’t waste your time. To be honest, this post ended up much longer than I expected it to be, so it’s hard to blame you.

For what it’s worth, I don’t intend for this to be a “Why Android is better than iOS” post, but rather, “why THIS Android phone is a better choice for ME” post. I am still an Apple fan (despite some decisions in iOS6 that I find questionable), and plan to stick with the iPad as my tablet platform for at least the next few years – I’m just an Apple fan who has discovered that, when it comes to a phone, Android, I was pleasantly surprised to learn, has more of what I personally want.


Why did I switch?

Flash back to a couple of months ago. Part of me wanted to wait and see what Apple was going to offer in the next iPhone, but the other (apparently larger) part of me is a gadget lover, and something about the HTC One X drew me in. I suppose it goes a bit further back than even that, though – back to the announcement of Ice Cream Sandwich. Since I like to think I’m not (overly) loyal to any specific brand or platform, I tend to watch all of the big tech announcements, and I came away from the ICS announcement quite impressed. It seemed that Android might finally be reaching a level of stability and UI smoothness that was on-par with the iPhone. Still, I wasn’t entirely sold on it – particularly as more and more Android handsets continued to come out with Android 2.3.

Beyond that, I honestly think I was just getting bored with iOS. As great and reliable as it is, it simply hasn’t changed that much in the last few years. The notification changes in iOS5 were welcome, but nothing I hadn’t personally been using since jailbroken iOS4. This is not necessarily a criticism of iOS, as this strategy is obviously working for Apple, but it just wasn’t inspiring me anymore – so, I started looking elsewhere. I briefly flirted with WP7, which I think is great in its own ways, but didn’t quite have the mature ecosystem I was looking for. Beyond that, after having had a retina display on my iPhone 4 and more recently on the new iPad, it was hard to imagine taking such a step back in resolution, even with something as otherwise-gorgeous as the Lumia 900.

Enter the HTC One X

I can’t remember when exactly I first started noticing the HTC One X. I want to say it was as early as CES, but all I knew for sure is that by the end of reading The Verge’s review, it had my full attention. The build quality seemed to be nearly on-par with my iPhone 4 (which had begun to rattle quite a bit around the camera area, not to mention the greatly-overblown-but-still-quite-real issue with reception), while offering a better screen, a better camera, and above-average battery life – the three things I really look for in phone hardware. In general, I can rely on Apple to make good hardware, but in this case, HTC took what I felt was a big step forward design-wise – it reminds me quite a bit of the Lumia 900 in that regard. I remember telling people “If this was the iPhone 5, I’d probably already own it.”

After much soul-searching, I decided that if I couldn’t wait until the new iPhone hardwareannouncement, I could at least wait for the new iPhone software announcement. As you’ve probably guessed based on the date this post was written, even that plan didn’t quite pan out. However, I did purposely time my purchase so that I would still have the option to return the phone after WWDC. So, a little over a month ago, I started the process of migrating ecosystems – most notably, I uploaded all my music from iTunes to Google Music. Most of the other services I used regularly were already multiplatform, with the notable exceptions of iCloud, Reminders and iMessage.

Interestingly, Apple was partially responsible for forcing my hand. I had decided I was definitely going to get a One X, and that it was just a matter of when it would happen…then I read the article on The Verge announcing that shipments of the One X had been held-up in customs due to the Apple/HTC lawsuit (http://www.theverge.com/2012/5/15/3022907/at-t-htc-one-x-blocked-at-us-customs-infringing-apple). Having no idea when this would be resolved, I quickly started calling AT&T stores, and found the closest one that still had a white model in stock. Two hours after reading the article, I was officially an Android owner.

First Impressions

I knew more or less what to expect when I got my hands on the phone – I’d spent enough time with friends’ Android phones that I was able to find my way around the interface pretty quickly, and nothing seemed any more or less intuitive than iOS. I’d also been to the AT&T store a couple of times to play with the store model, and I’d spent the last few days in XDA reading the General and Development threads – so my only two big questions were:

1. How much would the “Multitasking issue” impact me in my day-to-day activites?


2. Could I deal with such a significant screen-size change?

I quickly found that the answers were:

1. Not substantially


2. Definitely

It’s quite possible the One X’s approach to multitasking doesn’t bother me because I come from iOS, I’m not really sure, but overall, I haven’t encountered many frustrations. Slacker Radio seems a bit picky about running in the background, but that could also just be that it’s not a very well coded app. It also seems to run a bit better now that a big fix hsa come out.

Screen-wise, I am, without question, a convert into the Large Screen Club – it didn’t take long for me to go from the kind of person who would gladly mock the size of something like the Note, to thinking “Well, the Note is too big for me, but I can totally see why someone might want that.”


What I Like about Android

I could probably make an entire post dedicated just to the things I’ve found that I really enjoy about Android, but I’ll try to keep this as brief as possible. The big pluses for me really boil down to Customization (obviously) and Transparency (I’ll explain).

If you’ve used both iOS and Android, you know what I mean by customization. Just some personal examples: I enjoy widgets (though admittedly not as much as I thought I would), I love that I have immediate access to 10 different apps from my lockscreen, and I absolutely adore the beta for SwiftKey 3…and this is coming from someone who swore by the iOS keyboard for years.

Since I came from the jailbroken iOS world, I was used to at least some freedom of customization, but I’ve noticed a lot of iOS android-style customizations like live wallpapers, attempts at widgets, Springboard animations, Winterboard/Summerboard themes, custom keyboards, etc. will make iOS much more unstable and are often times more gimmicky than functional.

Stock iOS is generally more stable than stock Android (in my limited experience), but a heavily-modified jailbroken iOS is (in much much more extensive experience) generally less stable (and at times much laggier) than stock – or even rooted – Android. After all was said and done, the only real major tweaks I had left on my iPhone 4 were Intelliscreen X and Sprintomize, and those alone slowed down my phone to a noticeable level. Not only that, but my phone would fairly consistently re-spring. In the end, each tweak I added to iOS felt like another gamble. Overall for stability and performance I’d say:

Stock iOS > Stock ICS > Rooted ICS > Jailbroken iOS.

As for Android customization…as a personal example, after a few days, this was the first page of my Android homescreen. Things have changed subtantially now as I’ve adapted the phone to better fit my personal usage, but it still helps illustrate my point:


There are a number of things in this picture that can only be done via iPhone jailbreaking, and even then, it may lead to a very unstable system. Just on this screen we have:

  1. App-specific status bar notification icons (note the Facebook and mail icons)
  2. Environment-specific status bar icons (plugged into USB, phone in vibrate mode, headphones plugged in, etc.)
  3. 7 apps in the dock, with ample screen space for all of them. As a bonus, the dock is scrollable.
  4. Instant access to current weather conditions
  5. One-tap access to toggles like WiFi, Bluetooth, and brightness.
  6. One-tap access to functionality like using a camera flash as a flashlight.

So, transparency. For some reason, this is the thing that ended up surprising me the most about Android – probably just because I’d never considered it until using it on a daily basis. The iPhone is a black box, both hardware-wise and software-wise. In contrast, I always feel like I know what my Android phone is doing, thanks to a combination of the built-in (and fantastic) battery and data monitoring tools, along with third-party apps like CPU Spy and BetterBatteryStats. These tools help me track down if any specific customization I’ve made might be impacting battery life or performance more than anticipated. Of course, you may argue that this doesn’t matter if you aren’t making major jailbreak-level customizations, and you’re right – but this is part of why I believe Android is more appealing than even jailbroken iOS.

This transparency doesn’t just apply to lower-level tweakers like me – to begin with, the status bar in Android is leaps and bounds above the one in iOS. Every app has a specific notification icon, so I know, at a glance, what has happened recently. Phone in silent mode? There’s an icon for that. Is an app or service is syncing in the background? There’s an icon for that. GPS satellites currently in use? There’s an icon for that. iOS, as a counter-point, has the general “location services” icon, but when it’s visible, it can mean any number of things. As an aside: the larger screen size of the One X shines here as well, since it gives the status bar much more room to breath – I always felt the iOS status bar was overly cramped.

The notification shade is another place where I think Android shines over iOS – I love the distinction between “ongoing” and “standard” notifications, adding another layer of transparency, and functionality-wise, dismissing notifications is much simpler than it is in iOS – one flick and a notification is gone. Or, if you prefer, one tap and they’re all gone. This may sound minor (and I admit it is), but dismissing notifications in iOS, particularly on the iPhone’s smaller screen, is an exercise in unnecessary frustration. Two-taps – if you’re lucky enough to accurately tap the “X” that appears – and that’s just for a single application.

Finally, Android’s “toast” messages are another way the OS is constantly in communication with the user. As a simple example – if I set an alarm, I get a toast notification telling me the alarm is set for X hours from now. Again, this isn’t exactly a huge platform-making-or-breaking feature, but for someone clumsy like me – who has set an alarm for PM instead of AM more than once – it’s nice to have the instant feedback.

There are other, obvious examples – the browsable file-system and the notification LED are big ones – but overall, I just feel like Android is more communicative to the user, which for my personal usage, is a big deal.

Obviously, none of these are reasons to go out and buy a phone…these are just specific, personal examples of ways in which Android fits my life better than iOS.

What I Miss About the iPhone

Surprisingly little – and I don’t say that with any malice or sarcasm. I legitimately expected to miss more about my ever-trusty iPhone 4…I put my own chances of returning the One X at about 50/50. I’d never been particularly impressed with the Android phones I’d handled before, and I’d always said that I valued stability and reliability more than anything else when it came to my phone.

Before the One X, I always thought my first Android device would be a tablet – I would argue to others, before having used both as a daily driver, that Android would make a better tablet OS and iOS would make a better phone OS, because above all you need a phone to be reliable. Now, post-ICS, I would say my positions have actually switched – Android (and WP 7) both excel at getting to information quickly through widgets and Live Tiles respectively, which is my primary use for a smartphone other than communication. Tablets, on the other hand, are generally used when I want to focus on a single task at a time (like draft this post or catch up on Google Reader). I don’t really need widgets or Live Tiles with a tablet OS, because I’m not going to be taking my tablet out of my pocket to check the weather or update Facebook. That’s not to say they don’t have any value, just that I don’t think information-at-a-glance is as useful on a tablet OS – not that I’d mind having a dashboard on my iPad.

So, what do I miss? Certain third-party apps, for one. There’s no Twitter app on Android that is anywhere near the quality of something like Tweetbot. The Google Reader app isn’t bad, but it doesn’t quite reach the same level as Reeder. For the most part, though, the quality of the apps I used the most on iOS are roughly on the same level on Android. I’d heard horror stories about the Android Facebook app, but I think the Android app runs as-good or better than the iOS app did on my iPhone 4. Some apps actually have more functionality – like Dropbox’s ability to automatically upload pictures in the background without needing to start the app. It’s also refreshing to see how much Android apps are allowed to communicate with one another – I no longer need a silly bookmarklet hack just to save a webpage to Pocket, for example.

thought I would miss the App Store, but Google Play (ugh, still a stupid name) has been just as easy to navigate, and I’ve found I like it even more than the App Store…I love that I can install applications directly from my browser, and that “root-only” apps are given equal visibility to all other apps, meaning you don’t have to dig through a special third-party app store just because you want to do something “unapproved” for stock.

I miss third-party accessory support. In fact, I still use my iPhone 4 daily, because I have an ANT+ heart rate monitor and an ANT+ iPhone dongle that I use to track my heart rate while I work out. Right now, there’s no real equivalent for Android.

I miss a few aspects of the iOS ecosystem – leaving the iOS ecosystem was actually my greatest fear, but it turns out I wasn’t nearly as tethered to it as I originally thought. Cloud was a great way of keeping apps on both iOS devices in sync, and Photo Stream was a convenient way to show pictures on my iPad that I’d taken with my iPhone (though Dropbox covers this need somewhat). I miss Reminders seamlessly syncing between my iPhone and iPad…I tried out some decent third-party cross-platform reminder/task applications like Astrid and Any.do, but I didn’t find any of them reliable enough to use for my personal use. In the end, I opted to just create a new Google Calendar for “tasks”, which works well enough. It doesn’t have geolocation-based reminder functionality, but I never really used that anyway. iMessage was a nice-to-have, but not everyone I know uses an iPhone, and a majority of my communication occurs through Google Talk. Also, to be honest, I found iMessage as frustrating as it was useful at times – often my message would end up getting sent as SMS due to network issues, and the distinction between iMessages sent to my phone number and iMessages sent to my Apple ID (finally resolved in IOS6, at least) was obnoxious.

WWDC didn’t do much to sway me back, either, unfortunately. I was willing to give it a chance, but it felt like Apple was once again playing catch-up…someone sarcastically referred to the release as “iOS 5S”, and it’s hard for me to disagree. On a personal note, I can’t say I was pleased to see the new turn-by-turn feature excluded from my perfectly capable iPhone 4, either. To be fair, I knew going into WWDC that I was going to need to see a significant revamp of the OS before I’d be willing to go back, and I didn’t really expect that to happen. Apple has a good thing going, and there’s no reason for them to throw that aside for tinkerers like me.

Finally, I will miss the Apple support system. Say what you will about the company, but my personal experience has been that their support – assuming you are within driving distance of an Apple store – is second to none.


So, what have I learned from all this? First of all, I’ve learned it’s never fair to judge a product until you’ve used that product for yourself – a lesson I should have learned a couple years ago, after calling the original iPad nothing more than a “giant iPod Touch”, only to end up buying (and greatly enjoying) one a couple months later. I knew Android was customizable, but I never really understood the full extent of that until owning one.

I learned that, despite what some people may want you to think, Android has come a long way, and ICS is finally approaching stock iOS-levels of stability and polish. I’ve also learned thatChris Ziegler was right back in December…if someone asked me what phone to buy, I’d tell them to buy an iPhone, for reasons he explained far more eloquently than I ever could. Of course, if they pressed me, I’d be happy to gush about the One X…but that brings me to my final point.

I’ve learned that iOS is what Apple wants it to be and Android is, for better or worse, what youmake of it. In the last 29 days:


  1. I have rooted my phone.
  2. I have gone from 9 homescreens full of widgets and app shortcuts, to 5 homescreens full of mostly widgets, and finally now to mimilistic approach with only 3 homescreens, one widget on each home screen with a custom lockscreen full of my most-used apps.
  3. I have installed Titanitum Backup and manually frozen bloatware and other unused Sense features.
  4. I have manually unlocked the bootloader, at the risk of bricking my phone.
  5. I’ve installed custom recovery tools.
  6. I’ve installed a couple of custom ROMs (CleanROM Lite 1.1 and CleanROM DE 2.3).
  7. I’ve flashed a new radio.

Can I honestly say I’d be as happy with my Android experience if I hadn’t gone through all of this? I don’t know. The stock Sense experience I started with a month ago was certainly not a bad one, but it also wasn’t as smooth as the custom ROM I am using today. I think I’d still be holding onto the One X, if only for the hardware, but I might be a bit more torn by the decision.

Am I worried that my phone may not get Jelly Bean or Key Lime Pie? Maybe a little, but right now, there’s not really much more I want out of the phone – and, as a tinkerer, I am already looking forward to a bright future with this device. There are enough customization options, even without custom ROMs, that I think it’ll take me quite awhile before getting bored again – I can always find a new way to mix things up and adopt it to my usage patterns. Once you start talking about custom ROMs (which are surprisingly easy to install), a whole new world opens up – a world I am eager to explore. Every day I feel like I’m learning new things – for instance, I discovered I could make my Foursquare app shortcut in the dock load directly into the “check in” page, rather than always starting on whatever page I last used. Since 99% of the time I’m opening the app, I’m doing so to check in somewhere, this is incredibly convenient for me.

Besides, my iPhone 4 isn’t going anywhere. I recently unlocked it through AT&T, and it’s still a part of my daily routine. There’s no small amount of comfort knowing that no matter what happens with my One X, I still have a great, reliable piece of hardware to fall back on.

Finally, I’ve learned that between the new iPad, great Android devices like the HTC One X, the new MacBook Pro, and the impending releases of Windows 8, (presumably) Windows 8 Phone, and the next-generation iPhone…it’s a fantastic time to be a gadget nerd like me, and no matter what you choose, it’s hard to go wrong.

Well, you know, unless you get a Blackberry.

Nest is Opening Up (Finally)

Nest co-founder Matt Rogers:

“The home shouldn’t be a platform war.  We’re going to be neutral. Switzerland.”

From Arstechnica.

Being a Nest owner from the pre-Google days, I’ve been waiting for Nest to open their API, and I’m glad to see it’s finally happening – and I’m even more thrilled to see that it’s so open.  As Rogers said, home automation should be platform-agnostic – no one wants a Google Home or an Apple iHome; we just want our Android devices and iProducts to work seamlessly with whatever devices we’ve chosen from whatever companies have the best stuff.

Why I Uninstalled Foursquare (and Swarm)

Uninstalling an app I’ve used for years is a big move for me, because I hate giving up on things – but this weekend, after a couple of weeks of debating it, I finally gave Swarm and Foursquare the boot.

I’ve never really cared all that much where my friends were checking in – beyond the basic thrill of voyeurism – but it was entertaining to compete with them for mayorships and points.  When traveling, my friend and I would often race to be the first to check in to a new place, just for the extra points.  It was incredibly stupid and arbitrary, but like many things that are stupid and arbitrary, it was also pretty fun.

I was hopeful when I first heard that Foursquare was breaking out check-ins into their own app, Swarm, since Foursquare had started to feel a bit bloated lately, and an app devoted entirely to check-ins could have been a great move.  What I didn’t know it that they were also taking away the things I cared about most – I had to hop over to Foursquare’s blog to find that out.

Long story short:

  • Points?  Gone, because apparently they “became arbitrary and less reflective of real-world achievement”.  You know what they say – if there’s something slightly broken with a core system in your product, throw it out entirely.
  • Mayorships?  Neutered in favor of Mayorship 2.0: “With these new mayorships, if you and a couple friends have been checking in to a place, the person who has been there the most lately gets a crown sticker. Mayors 2.0 means that places can have many different mayors, one for each circle of friends, instead of just a single mayor at each place.”  Of course, if you rarely check in to the same place as your friends do, this is a completely worthless “upgrade”.  That was the purpose of points; to compete with friends without having to go to all the same places they do.
  • Badges? Gone, because apparently “badges stopped feeling special a long time ago.”  Thanks for telling me how I feel, Foursquare. Now, instead of badges, we get stickers – because apparently stickers are what makes me feel special now. Oh, Foursquare – how did you know?

Foursquare has, essentially, mined the information I’ve given them for years, then removed everything that made the product attractive to me, all in a (perhaps desperate) attempt to become more like Yelp.  The problem is, I don’t need Foursquare to be like Yelp, because I already have an app like Yelp – it’s called Yelp.  What I need is for Foursquare to be like Foursquare.

The current version of Swarm currently has a whopping 2 stars on the iTunes app store from 256 users, so it seems appropriate to close with a rant from one such dissatisfied customer:

As someone with 17,000 Foursquare checkins over the last 4 years, I would like to say a few things.

I got into Foursquare for the social gaming aspect. It was so fun to check in everywhere I went and earn points, badges, and mayorships. I met friends through Foursquare and tracked my long distance family. I even became a super user to help build the amazing database of locations and information that Foursquare has become.

Fast forward to present day Swarmsquare. What do you have here? A simple app to flush the original users out of the system. The ones that created the database Foursquare is now selling to the public. All the original users lose everything they enjoyed about Foursquare and must now juggle Swarmsquare apps if they want even the slightest semblance of what used to be.

0/5 stars for alienating your original customer base and losing the entire soul of Foursquare.

Bake me a cake as fast as you can…

From Arstechnica’s fantastic overview of the history of Android.  I have to wonder where Android would be today without Matias.

While HP bought a product with a great user interface, the lead designer of that interface, a man by the name of Matias Duarte, did not join HP. In May 2010, just before HP took control of Palm, Duarte jumped ship to Google. HP bought the bread, but Google hired the baker.

The devil’s in the details

I recently replied to this post on The Verge, and I think my response is worth sharing as it sums up my current view on status of mobile tech, at least as it pertains to Android and iOS.

For the past couple years I’ve owned the 3 last Nexus devices: the Galaxy, the 4 and the 5. Each one got better than the last. Before that, I had a various smattering of iPhones, Blackberries, Sony Ericsson devices, Nokias. But, being the finicky bugger that I am, the other day I randomly decided to buy an iPhone 5S.

In any instance there’s a tiny bit of give and take on both ends and overall they probably just average out to being “Holy shit, both of these phones are pretty damn good and basically do everything I need them to do within reason.”

TL;DR: The platform war is over. Everything is beige.

I couldn’t agree more, especially with iOS8 bringing a lot of the features I’ve enjoyed on Android to the iPhone. It’s becoming less and less about what’s better, but about the small details and which of those details matters most to the individual user. For me, it’s come down to a few key things:

  1. I actually really love wireless charging, though I understand why others don’t care about it. Now that I’ve had it, though, the sheer convenience factor is something that’s hard to overlook.
  2. I prefer a larger device – 4.5-5 inches – to a smaller device.
  3. I want full control of my phone, at least where carrier crap is concerned. Don’t give me your shitty software, or your ridiculous restrictions on how I can use the data that I am paying you for. The Nexus 5 is the purest form of that, but the iPhone is the next best thing. I find it incredibly unlikely my next phone will be something besides a Nexus or an iPhone.

The thing is, none of these are deal breakers – they’re small details, but they’ve become important to me in a world where everything else is basically equal.

Daily Drivers Update, 6/22/2014

As part of this blog, I am going to keep an up-to-date list of all the devices I currently use as daily drivers.  That list can be found here. Devices added:

  • Nexus 5
  • Nexus 7
  • 13-inch MacBook Pro with Retina Display (Late 2013)
  • Sony Cyber-Shot DSC-RX100 II
  • FitBit One, Pebble Smartwatch

Devices removed: None.

Welcome to writing about tech

Everyone kept telling me to start a tech blog.  So I have.

It’s called writing about techbecause I’m really bad at coming up with names for things, and all the clever ones are probably taken anyway.

Who am I?  I’m a 32-year-old programmer with a masters in Computer Science who uses tech to enhance all aspects of my life; work, play, fitness, travel.  I also have a lot of random thoughts about the tech industry; where it’s been, and where it’s headed.  This is a place for all of those things, and more.

I’ve written a couple of fan posts that have been featured by The Verge, including 29 Days with Android and Information Consumption + Exercise.  My personal favorite is, perhaps, is Breaking the Ecosystem Shackles: The Power of Defaults and Intents in Android, which was also featured at the Droid Den.

The goal is to have a single place to scribble down random thoughts I have about tech news, gadgets I use, gaming, and whatever else comes to mind.  Some of it will be copying (what I egotistically consider to be) particularly insightful comments I’ve made to others, some of it will be short thoughts that pop in my head, and I occasionally I’ll do something long-form like the examples post above.  I’ll also sprinkle in some posts about how I incorporate tech into my fitness routine.

I think we’ve only just begun to unlock the potential of a world in which we all carry a personal computer in our pockets, and I can’t wait to see where we go next.


Copyright © 2024 writing about tech

Theme by Anders NorenUp ↑